E-paper display is a technology that can be used on paper and walls with low power consumption. In addition, they are eco-friendly as they reflect the light, making them easy to read.
You can see electronic paper displays in bus terminals, traffic signs, and logistics monitoring services. And if you want to get e-paper displays at discounted prices, use this Kindle books coupon while purchasing one.
Types of E-paper Displays
Below are the two types of E-paper displays:
Ø Flexible Electronic Paper Display
The electronic paper wristwatch was the first device launched with a flexible display.
Flexible electronic displays are unique devices that can bend easily compared to other devices. Over the years, many IT sectors have used this technology on tablets, LCDs, and various devices.
These devices can be rolled like a scroll without damaging the text and pictures. The products used in manufacturing these flexible devices are:
- Electronic Ink
- Organic LCD
Ø Non-Flexible Electronic Paper Display
Non-flexible electronic devices give a standard display like typical images and texts. You can find these devices in hospitals, industries, and transport.
These devices are thin, lightweight, and capable of showing high resolution compared to old TVs.
This display is used in laptops, mobiles, and cameras, ultimately overtaking CRT displays. Most of the non-flexible electronic devices have touchscreen displays that are easy to use.
Below are the types of non-flexible E-paper displays:
- Volatile Display
- Static Display
How E-Papers Work
If you want to know about the working of E-papers, read below:
The first e-paper created in history was Gyrico containing polyethylene spheres. One side of these spheres has negatively charged black plastic and a positively charged white plastic on the other side.
The Estonian company Visitret used polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for spheres in this technology to enhance video speed and control the voltage.
These spheres are fixed in a transparent silicone sheet put in oil to make them rotate freely. The voltage applied on electrodes decides whether the black or white side is on top so that the pixel will get a white or black appearance.
2. Electrophoretic Displays
Electrophoretic display (EPD) is also an important part of E-paper devices that uses (TFT) Thin-Film Translator technology. The most frequently used app by TFT-based EPDs is E-readers.
This display is the perfect example of the electronic paper category because of its appearance, and it consumes less power.
Electrophoretic displays are made from millions of tiny microcapsules filled with fluid to create different colors and electric charges. On applying current, the negative charges move towards the top, while positive charges go to the bottom.
This movement of these charges from top to bottom gets repeated and makes the surface show color.
3. Electrowetting Displays
Electrowetting technology uses the tension of liquid surfaces to make displays. It contains tiny cells of transparent polar liquid and a colored oil that covers the hydrophobic surface.
The oil then goes into a tiny droplet by applying a low voltage to the cells. As a result, small pixels are created, which provide high brightness and contrast. They help in displaying images and videos.
4. Interferometric Modulator
The electronic visual display uses the interferometric modulator to create different colors through light. A light modulator is used for color selection through the microscopic cavity. In addition, a driver-integrated circuit is connected as a switch to turn the microscopic activity on and off, similar to LCDs.
5. Electrochromic Displays
One of the most important processes used in e-paper displays is electrochromic. This method changes the color of materials by applying an electric current.
Electrochromic devices operate with properties like optical transmission, absorption, and reflectance. This display is used in smart glasses and electrochromic mirrors as it enables ECD.
The electrochromic goes under chemical oxidation and reduction by putting voltage with electrolyte.
6. Plasmonic Electronic Display
The plasmonic electronic display is also considered an e-paper, containing a nanostructure with conductive polymers. This material has two parts:
- The first part is a highly reflective meta surface made from metal-insulator-metal films. It includes nanoscale holes with tens of nanometers in thickness. This metasurface can reflect different colors based on the thickness of the insulator. A standard RGB color scheme is used for full-color display.
- The second part is a polymer with optical absorption, which an electrochemical potential can control. The reflection of meta surfaces gets adjusted on the polymer by applying voltage. As a result, it gives a wide range of colors, high independent reflection, and long-term stability.
The system can bend as the ultrathin meta surfaces are flexible and polymers are soft.
Before You Go
E-paper technology has set a new standard by providing users with a unique experience of using applications. Over time, E-paper display will spread worldwide as it is a more reliable and advanced form of display.