Aditya Karikalan: History


Aditya Karikalan
Aditya Karikalan
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image source: https://www.liveakhbar.in/2022/10/02/how-did-king-aditya-karikalan-died/ 

Aditya Karikalan, also known as Aditya II or Aditya Chola, was an Indian Napoleon from the Chola dynasty who lived during the 10th century. He was born in Tirukoilur and was the first-born son of Parantaka Chola II, who was a famed sovereign of the Chola conglomerate. Aditya Karikalan was the elder family of Rajaraja Chola I, who later succeeded his father as the sovereign of the Chola dynasty. Also, he’d a youngish family named Kundavai. Aditya Karikalan was an important figure in the Chola dynasty and played a significant part in the conglomerate’s history.

He was known for colorful titles, including Aditya II, Aditya Chola, Virapandiyan Thalai Konda Koparakesari Varman Karikalan, and more. His title, “Virapandiyan Thalai Konda,” translates to “the bone who subdued the Pandya king,” which suggests that he may have led successful military juggernauts against rival fiefdoms.

Despite being overshadowed by his youngish family, Rajaraja Chola I, Aditya Karikalan was a notable personality in his own right. He’s said to have been a professed legionnaire and a just sovereign who commanded the respect of his subjects. Aditya Karikalan’s benefactors to the Chola dynasty can not be understated, and his heritage lives on to this day.

Early Life of Aditya Karikalan 

Aditya Karikalan was the elder son of the Chola king Parantaka II (alias Sundara) and queen Vanavan Mahadevi. He was the eldest family of Rajaraja Chola and Kundavai.

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He led the Chola passage against the Pandyas and defeated the Pandya king Veerapandyan at the Battle of Chevur. During the Battle of Chevur, he killed Veerapandiyan on the banks of Vaigairiver. As per the Esalam copper and bronze plates discovered at Esalam village in Tamil Nadu, Aditya Karikalan conquered the Pandya sovereign in battle and guillotined him. Aditya was made the co-regent and heir-at-law apparent to the Chola throne, though Uttama Chola, the son of Gandaradita Chola, had more rights to the throne. Aditya Karikalan was assassinated.

Aditya was succeeded by Uttama Chola. The Udaiyarkudi gravestone eulogies in Anandheeswarar tabernacle at present-day Udaiyarkudi in Tamil Nadu names the killers- Soman, Ravidasan alias Panchavan Brammadhirajan, Parameswaran alias Irumudichozha Brammadhirajan and Malaiyanooran. The necrology also mentions the decree of Raja Raja expropriating the lands of the manslayers. As per epigraphs, the inquiry into the death was completed in the alternate time of Rajaraja Chola I’s reign, and the lands of certain officers were sequestered for their conspiracy in the murder of “Karikala Chola who took the head of the Pandya.” Chroniclers are divided as to whether the necrology says that the confiscation was a direct royal order of RajaRaja or that the decree was given authorization for dealing the land sequestered before from the killers.

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In the compositions of Dr. K.T. Tirunavukkarasau, he grounds his view on a number of literal data points; Dr Tirunavukkarasu has gone on to explain that there was a detention in arresting the perpetrators incontinently later, and it was only during Rajaraja I’s alternate regnal time that the lawbreakers were brought to bespeak. Reservations were refocused on Uttama Chola, but confiscations of land belonging to lawbreakers started before Raja’s period, suggesting that Uttama Chola didn’t spare the plotters. Among the penalized were Ravidasan, Soman, and Parameshwaran, who were all government officers.

The Chola Dynasty: A regard into the history

Before we explore the life of Aditya Karikalan, it’s essential to understand the environment of the Chola dynasty. The Cholas, one of the most influential and long-lasting dynasties in South India, ruled over the region for centuries. The Chola dynasty reached its meridian during the reign of great monarchs like Rajaraja Chola and Rajendra Chola. The Cholas, with their important nonmilitary forces and extensive homes, extended their influence across South India, a corridor of Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. This dynasty not only left behind a remarkable architectural heritage but also played a vital part in the region’s profitable, political, and artistic development.

Aditya Karikalan: History 

Aditya Karikalan was born in 942 CE to Parantaka Chola II and his queen, Ilaada Madeviyar, a queen of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. His father, Parantaka Chola II, was an important sovereign who expanded the Chola area to its topmost extent.

Aditya grew up in a royal ménage, girdled by wealth, power, and influence. He entered a good education and was trained in warfare, tactfulness, and governance. Aditya Karikalan had two youngish siblings, Rajaraja Chola I and Kundavai. Rajaraja Chola I succeeded his father as the sovereign of the Chola dynasty, while Kundavai was married to the Chalukya prince Vimaladitya and played an important part in Chola-Chalukya relations.

Name Aditya Karikalan
Other NamesAditya IIAditya Chola
Timeline942 CE – 971 CE
DynastyChola Dynasty
BirthplaceTirukoilur, Tamil Nadu
Father’s nameParantaka Chola II
Mother’s nameVanavan Madevi
WifeIlaada Madeviyar 
SiblingsRajaraja Chola I, Kundavai
AchievementsHe had led the Chola expedition against the Pandyas and defeated the Pandya king Veerapandyan at the Battle of Chevur. 
SuccessorUttama Chola
Death PalaceKadambur

Military Information

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According to literal records, Aditya Karikalan led the Chola dynasty’s passage against their arch-rivals, the Pandyas. He had defeated the Pandyas by killing King Veeranpandyan on the bank of the Vaigai River. This palm established Aditya’s military prowess and cemented his character as a competent leader.

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Despite not being the direct heir-at-law to the throne, Aditya Karikalan was appointed as the co-regent and heir-at-law apparent to the Chola conglomerate. This decision was made indeed, though Uttama Chola, the son of Gandaradita Chola, had a stronger claim to the throne. Unfortunately, Aditya’s reign was cut suddenly due to his early assassination at the hands of Veerapandiyan’s associates seeking vengeance for the defeat.

Uttama Chola was the successor of Aditya Karikalan after his death. The disquisition into Aditya’s murder was conducted during the alternate time of Rajaraja Chola I’s reign. As per the available eulogies, the officers who were set up shamefaced of being complicit in the murder of “Karikala Chola, who took the head of the Pandya,” had their lands sequestered. The heritage of Aditya Karikalan, despite his short reign, continues to endure and is flashed back as an important chapter in the Chola dynasty’s history.

Chola Dynasty’s Struggle for Supremacy

Aditya Karikalan came to power at a time of great fermentation for the Chola dynasty. During the waning reign of his father, Parantaka Chola I, the Cholas faced significant challenges from rival dynasties, particularly the Pallavas and the Pandya lords. The Pallavas and Pandya lords had historically been redoubtable adversaries, frequently fighting for supremacy in South India.

Aditya Karikalan, still, was determined to restore Chola supremacy in the region. Under his rule, the Cholas initiated a crusade to reclaim homes lost to their rivals. His military juggernauts and strategic alliances played a vital part in establishing the Cholas as a dominant force formerly again.

Cultural benefactions and Patronage

Aditya Karikalan was a patron of the trades and culture as well as had a great military conquest. He even promoted works in literature, music, and art during his reign. During the reign of Aditya Karikalan, there were several constructions of temples and monuments. The Brihadeeswarar Temple in Gangaikondacholapuram is one of the fine arts of the Cholas’ brilliant architecture and commitment to religious patronage.

Aditya Karikalan’s support for literature is particularly noteworthy. He used to encourage scholars and poets. He had contributed to the growth of Tamil literature during his rule. The love for art and culture by Aditya Karikalan left an incredible mark on the culture of the Chola dynasty. 

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Death of Aditya Karikalan

Archaeologist Kudavayil Balasubramanian has exfoliated light on the part of Madurantaka Uttama in the assassination of Aditya Karikalan. Still, Dr. K T Tirunavukkarasu’s collection of literal essays named “Arunmozhi Aiyvu Thogudi” presents a comprehensive analysis that dismisses Uttama Chola’s involvement in the murder. The detention in arresting the perpetrators further supports this claim. It was only during the alternate regnal time of Rajaraja Chola I that the lawbreakers were brought to justice.

Literal records indicate that the officers penalized for their part in the plot included Ravidasan, Soman, and Parameshwaran. All three of them were government officers. It’s suspected that their provocation for the assassination was to retaliate against the decapitation of Veerapandyan by Aditya Karikalan. While reservations were originally pointed towards Uttama Chola, the confiscation of land belonging to the lawbreakers began before Rajaraja’s reign, suggesting that Uttama Chola didn’t spare the plotters.

Important Facts 

  • Aditya Karikalan, also known as Aditya II or Aditya Chola, was a Chola Napoleon who lived in India during the 10th century.
  • He was born as the eldest son of Parantaka Chola II in Tirukoilur, Tamil Nadu.
  • He was the eldest from the family of Rajaraja Chola I and Kundavai.
  • Aditya led the Chola passage against the Pandyas and defeated the Pandya king Veerapandyan at the Battle of Chevur.
  • During the Battle of Chevur, he killed Veerapandyan on the bank of the Vaigai River.
  • Aditya was made the co-regent and heir-at-law apparent to the Chola throne, indeed though Uttama Chola had further rights to the throne.
  • Aditya was assassinated by the associates of Veerapandiyan in vengeance for the defeat.
  • Aditya was succeeded by Uttama Chola.
  • The inquiry into Aditya’s death was completed in the alternate time of Rajaraja Chola I’s reign.
  • Certain officers’ lands were sequestered for their conspiracy in the murder of Aditya Karikala.
  • According to archaeologist Kudavayil Balasubramanian, there was a detention in arresting the perpetrators incontinently later.
  • Reservations were refocused on Uttama Chola, but confiscations of land belonging to lawbreakers started before Raja Raja’s period, suggesting that Uttama Chola didn’t spare the plotters.
  • Among the penalized were Ravidasan, Soman, and Parameshwaran, who were all government officers.
  • The provocation behind the assassination was to retaliate for the death of Veerapandyan.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the life and heritage of Aditya Karikalan continue to be an important chapter in the history of the Chola dynasty. Despite being the older family of Rajaraja Chola I and heir-at-law apparent to the Chola throne, Aditya’s reign was short-lived. His military juggernauts against the Pandyas redounded in his palm at the Battle of Chevur but also led to his assassination at the hands of Veerapandyan’s associates.

While there were reservations about Madurantaka Uttama’s involvement in the plot, literal substantiation and analysis by scholars have dismissed these claims. The discipline of the government officers involved in the plot suggests that the provocation behind the assassination was to retaliate for the death of Veerapandyan. Aditya Karikalan’s benefactors to the Chola dynasty and his early death continue to be flashed back and studied.


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