What We Know – A Systematic Review [1.5 MB PDF file] The gambling industry has witnessed rapid expansion on the Internet over recent years. While gambling remains largely an activity for socializing purposes among large portions of global populations, problem gambling (PG) can occur. Gamblers’ journeys from initiation to problem gambling development are affected by various variables, including individual and environmental considerations and those linked with their gambling characteristics.
Marketing has long been reported as influencing gamblers’ perceptions and behaviors; this influence may not be so evident for digital gambling marketing, which spans from website promotion and promotion of gambling-related services through communication channels such as social media networks and platforms.
This article aimed to address this gap by conducting a systematic literature review to answer two key questions about digital gambling marketing: (1) what strategies exist, and (2) what impact has this exposure had on gambling representations, intentions, and practices? Method: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted from February 2020 to March 2020 on Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus databases. Existing papers published between January 2000 and February 2020 were identified using this search algorithm: ((“internet”[MeSH Major Topic] OR communications[All Fields] AND media[All Fields]) OR (“social media”[MeSH Terms] OR (“social”[All Fields] AND media(All Fields] OR social media”(All Fields] OR social media “) OR ((“social media ” [MeSH Terms ] OR (“media” All Fields] OR social media”(All Fields] OR “social media”[All Fields]), and “gambling”[MeSH Major Topic] OR marketing”[MeSH Terms or “marketing”[All Fields]), or marketing”[MeSH Terms OR marketing”[All Fields]), or marketing[MeSH Terms or abstract).
Results: After screening 913 candidate studies for inclusion in this systematic review, 21 met our selection criteria. Sports marketing became an especially potent component of online gambling promotion. Various platforms for sports gambling and strategies developed specifically for social media use were identified as key targets of gambling advertising. Concerning content, the study revealed a systematic relationship between sport and gambling, with vulnerable populations such as youth at an elevated risk for exposure to gambling marketing casino siteleri.
Conclusion: Unfortunately, no data exists regarding digital gambling marketing strategies or exposure. Research on sports may provide the perfect opportunity to understand how specific populations are targeted within this industry and how these strategies could affect player growth and development. Introduction The Internet is now an integral part of life and serves as both an information source and a means for connecting with others around the globe (1). Recently, the gambling industry has witnessed rapid expansion across various media. This surge in legalized gambling has increased public health risks (2-4). Gambling is a globally popular social activity, and most national surveys indicate more gamblers than non-gamblers (5).
For example, 74% of French citizens reported ever gambling at some point (6). Gambling remains social in most instances, yet problem gambling (PG) may occur (5). Problem gambling (PG) can be defined as any pattern of persistently maladaptive gambling that causes clinically significant impairment or distress (7). Around the world, lifetime prevalence for posttraumatic stress disorder ranges from 0.7% to 6.5% (5), and its damage can be significant: professional and financial (8), psychological (with increased suicide risks), familial (5), etc. Gamblers’ journeys from initial exposure to the professionalization of gambling (PG) can be affected by numerous variables, including personal and environmental considerations and factors specific to gambling characteristics (10, 11). Gambling participation has increased due to its increasing availability, advertising, marketing, and deregulation (12, 13). Gambling industry leaders were one of the early innovators of Internet technology development (12). Gambling experiences designed by Bwin. the party aims to engage the senses through the creative use of audio-visual technologies like touch screens, surround sound systems, augmented reality platforms, and haptic actuators (14). Experience marketing is a highly effective strategy influencing consumers’ behaviors, satisfaction, and loyalty (15). By creatively employing touch, hearing, and vision sensors, the digital world has innovated many methods for controlling human emotions (16). These advancements in gambling types and media usage, coupled with digital tools, have allowed the gambling industry to broaden its customer base (17). Legalized sports betting has seen gradual progress since the mid-2000s in Europe, gradually becoming normalized as more betting platforms became legally accessible to consumers.
Companies compete to position and draw customers to this relatively untested market (18). Strategies implemented by online gambling operators fall under the larger definition of gambling marketing as a management process from concept to the customer. Numerous studies have emphasized the correlations between proximity to gambling opportunities and excessive gambling practices (19-23). Unfortunately, no causal mechanisms for advertising’s influence on gambling behavior are fully understood (24). Binde’s critical review in 2014 suggested that gambling advertising did influence gambling behaviors despite a lack of evidence (25). Furthermore, correlational studies often revealed problem gamblers reported greater exposure to such ads (26). Problem gamblers are an obvious target for the gambling industry; 17.1% of online gamblers in Canada were considered problem gamblers in 2007, spending 41% of all online gambling funds (27). Gambling advertisements have been shown to have an overwhelming negative influence on problem gamblers (25-28). Russel et al.’s study demonstrated this, with 20-30% of gamblers reporting repeated negative advertisements having an adverse influence on being at risk or problem gamblers (30). Recent advancements in online gambling have coincided with increased concerns about its potential harm (31). Regular and problem gamblers could be particularly at risk from digital gambling marketing campaigns; online gamblers have an increased risk for problem gambling than traditional gambling. Some studies have reported that online poker gamblers were two to three times more at risk of becoming problem gamblers than those gambling offline (27). According to another study, Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than non-interactive gamblers to increase their gambling activity when exposed to online gambling promotions (26). Advertising and traditional marketing have long been proven to influence gamblers’ perceptions and behavior; digital marketing may have different results. Digital gambling marketing encompasses an expansive set of strategies, from the promotion of gambling websites themselves to communication and advertising on various social networks and media. Social networks can be defined as an umbrella term encompassing a collection of applications with different modes and functions, including general networking (Facebook, MySpace), microblogging (Twitter), photo sharing or exchange of ephemeral content (Instagram, Snapchat, etc.), etc. These companies deliver messages directly by inserting advertisements into Internet users’ newsfeeds or stories; animating official pages via community managers (Facebook and Instagram); or organizing cultural, sporting, or festive events associated with their brand. Examining the impact of digital gambling marketing is important given that 51% of the global population (2019) is connected to the Internet, with over 90% of 12-24 year-olds connecting daily, while 80 and 94%, respectively, of 12-17 and 18-24 year-olds using social networks during 2019 (32). One can hypothesize that digital gambling and marketing strategies on the Internet could impact people’s gambling behaviors; however, few studies in the literature have examined this subject matter. This article sought to address this gap by conducting a systematic literature review to answer three key questions about digital gambling marketing strategies: (1) Which strategies exist within digital gambling marketing? and (2) Are any similarities among them? (2) How did gambling exposure impact gambling representations, intentions, and practices? Materials and Methods Protocol, Registration, and Eligibility Criteria The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews was used. As per MGL and KGM’s agreement regarding the coding process, inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) studies related to gambling marketing strategies on the Internet; (b) articles providing quantitative or qualitative data; (c) publications appearing in peer-reviewed journals adhering to IMRAD criteria; and (d) full-text publications available either in English or French. Information Sources and Search Strategies Between February 2020 and March 2020, existing papers published between January 2000 and February 2020 were identified by searching academic databases such as Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus. The two authors agreed on a list of English keywords for systematic search: (((“internet”[MeSH Major Topic] OR communications[All Fields] AND media[All Fields])) OR (“social media”[MeSH Terms] OR (“social”[All Fields] AND media]OR social media”[All Fields] OR social media”[All Fields] OR social media”[All Fields]))) AND gambling[MeSH Major Topic]), in titles, keywords or abstracts; Study Selection and Data Collection Process, The first two authors (MGL-KGM) of this review, served as reviewers, both being experienced researchers with expertise in literature reviews (and one having specific expertise regarding gambling disorders; MGL). Reviewers conducted independent reviews of titles and abstracts to ensure the reliability of screening processes, then met to discuss individual decisions made during independent reviews and reach a consensus about article inclusion or exclusion. Full-text articles were then collected and reviewed by two reviewers against inclusion/exclusion criteria, and any indefinite articles were discussed further by all three reviewers. Information gathered from articles included author names, year, study location, journal title, the objective of the study, key results, and key discussion points; quality ratings were conducted on all peer-reviewed articles included; we determined that all studies following IMRAD format were generally well conducted and met rating criteria without being excluded for poor quality research practices. No studies were excluded due to poor quality.
Table of Contents
Marketing Strategies in Digital Gambling
The growth of the gambling industry has experienced dramatic expansion, particularly online. The Internet is now an indispensable platform for various gambling forms and poses new challenges and opportunities. This article investigates marketing strategies employed in digital gambling marketing and their effect on gambling behavior through a systematic literature review. Researchers attempted to answer two primary questions through this investigation: (1) What strategies exist for digital gambling marketing? and (2) How does exposure to digital gambling impact representations, intentions, and practices related to gambling representations?
Influence of Internet Gambling on Children
The Internet has revolutionized our lives, serving as an information source and a global connection tool. Meanwhile, gambling companies have leveraged this digital landscape to introduce diverse gambling experiences through legalized gambling; however, this expansion of legalized gambling has raised public health concerns; gambling may be an enjoyable social activity; however, problem gambling – in which persistent patterns of gambling cause significant impairment or distress – may arise as a result of its legalized expansion. New digital tools and platforms provide gambling industries access to potential customers beyond what was available before—creating vulnerable populations like young people at risk.
Experience in Online Gambling Marketing
Gambling industry innovators have long been at the forefront of technological development, employing audio-visual tools to enhance user experiences. Engaging human senses through touch screens, augmented reality, and surround sound online gambling platforms have effectively changed consumer behavior, satisfaction, and loyalty – engaging user emotions by using touch, hearing, and sight to capture users. Digital gambling tools have allowed the industry to expand while competing for market share.
Advertising Influences Gambling Behavior
Studies have demonstrated the correlation between the availability and proximity of gambling opportunities, excessive gambling practices, and advertising’s influence on behavior. Although its precise mechanisms remain unknown, growing scientific evidence points to advertising’s power to affect behavior; problem gamblers are especially at risk due to this influence; research indicates they report increased exposure to gambling ads which may have detrimental impacts; this makes identifying their effects critically crucial in light of online gambling’s potential harms.
Digital Gambling Marketing and its Effect
Traditional advertising and marketing strategies have been shown to influence gambling behavior; however, their effects are less clear for digital marketing strategies. Digital gambling marketing encompasses various activities, from website optimization and promotion, social media outreach, and targeted advertising to targeted communications with prospects. Social media platforms have quickly evolved into powerful marketing platforms, allowing companies to communicate directly with customers via direct messages, interact with users through community managers and generate events associated with their brand. Concerns surrounding internet usage among young people have raised troubling questions regarding digital gambling marketing’s influence on gambling behaviors. Yet, little research exists on this topic, thus necessitating a systematic review to gain more insights into strategies employed and their influence on representations, intentions, and gambling practices.
To conduct their systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines, researchers searched Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus databases using keywords associated with the Internet, social media, gambling, and marketing. A total of 91 studies initially met the inclusion criteria. Still, only 21 met the inclusion criteria allowing the researchers to gain valuable insights into digital gambling marketing strategies and their potential effects across populations.