What is a Bunion?

Bunion is a foot deformity where the big toe is pronated (pushed inward). Bunions can develop for a number of reasons.

A bunion can develop when the bones in your foot shift out of place, causing the big toe to bend toward the second toe. It may also occur as a result of weak connective tissue or a foot condition such as rheumatoid arthritis.


Bunions usually start with pain and swelling around the base of the big toe. As the bunion gets bigger, a fluid-filled sac (bursa) may develop.

Redness and thickened skin along the inside edge 拇趾外翻 of the foot can also indicate a bunion. If you have these symptoms, ask your GP to refer you to a foot specialist (podiatrist).

The doctor will look at your feet and might take an X-ray to see if a bunion is present. They can also diagnose other problems, such as arthritis and gout, that could be causing your foot pain.

Treatment is designed to reduce your pain and keep your bunion from getting worse. Your doctor may prescribe medication, orthotics or physical therapy to help you manage the bunion.


A bunion is a progressive disorder of the foot. It develops when the first metatarsal bone (the foot bone leading up to the big toe) moves sideways towards the other toes.

This causes a bump to form on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe. The bump can then cause the big toe joint to bulge out.

The underlying problem is usually hereditary and sometimes caused by biomechanics (foot movement patterns). Inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis can also cause bunions, or they may be triggered by wearing narrow, pointed-toe shoes.

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Your doctor will examine your feet, looking at the shape and position of each toe. He or she will also look at the skin on your foot and ask about how the symptoms affect your life.


If you have a bunion that isn’t improving with conservative treatment, you may need surgery. This is usually done on an outpatient basis or occasionally as part of a hospital stay.

Nonsurgical treatments include wearing shoes that are comfortable and don’t put pressure on the bunion. Padding, taping or splinting can also help relieve pain and keep the bunion from getting bigger.

Taking anti-inflammatory drugs, like ibuprofen, naproxen sodium or acetaminophen, can also ease pain and swelling. Applying ice to the bunion, especially after you’ve been on your feet or if it gets inflamed, can help too.

Injections, such as cortisone, can also help reduce pain and inflammation in the area of the bunion. However, they shouldn’t be used very often and should be prescribed by your doctor.

Protective pads, which are available at drugstores, can cushion the painful area over the bunion. Try them for a short time to see if they work for you.


The most important thing you can do to prevent bunions is to wear shoes that fit properly. Choose shoes with a wide toe box and a soft sole that allow your foot to splay outward without pressure on the bunion.

You should also avoid wearing high heels with pointy tips because they tip your body weight forward, which puts more pressure on the big toe. You can try to ease pain by taking a break from wearing high-heeled shoes every now and then, or simply by slipping off your shoes for a few minutes each day.

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Some people develop bunions because they have certain structural imbalances that make their feet prone to developing them. For example, if you have rheumatoid arthritis or a condition that involves weakened ligaments and joints, you may be at risk for bunions.

Abhay Singh

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